Various dairy products are produced by dairy industries using different chemicals which generates sufficient effluent contains recalcitrant elements. Many dairy wastewater treatment plants suffer low food to microorganisms’ ratios during off-days, which lead to sludge bulking. Most dairies do not have an equalization tank or size is inadequate to alleviate the fluctuation in flow and organic loading. Many dairy wastewaters are nutrient deficient, there are few plants adding ammonia or urea steadily and automatically. Seasonal temperature variations are also found to have a significant effect on the microbial population. Frequent chemicals spills, notably brine solution, led to decreased COD efficiency.
Advanced oxidation process plays a efficient role in treatment of dairy wastewater using Fenton’s reagent like hydrogen peroxide and ferrous sulphate. Initially pH of effluent is reduced to 4 by using sulphuric acid and to treat 1 litre of effluent we use about 2ml of H2O2 and 1.5mg of FeSO4 . Alum is used as coagulant in coagulation process. Various tests are carried out in treated effluent like BOD, COD, pH, TDS, etc. 85% of COD and 60% of BOD is removed in treated effluent in reaction time of 40 minutes in oxidation process.
Increasing prices of water supply and disposal, availability and quality of water and strict legal environmental controls have increased concerns about sustainable development and the preservation of the public image of companies. It has therefore been advised that industries internally reclaim and reuse process waters in order to reduce water consumption and effluent production. Washing ,rinsing, cleaning-in-place, pasteurizing, ultra-high temperature processes, chilling, cooling, steam production etc. are the main processes in which large amounts of water are consumed. The wastewater streams of this type of industry show variable composition, often containing different concentrations of organic matter and suspended solids.
Mankind’s objective and scientist’s validation are the primordial issues in the world of environmental engineering . The pertinent question of environmental sustainability stands today in the midst of immense hope , determination and vision. The research plans needs to be reassessed and re-adjudicated with the immediate vision of zero-discharge norms.
India's Sustainable Development
Advanced oxidation processes are the next generation science and future technology. Future directions and future dimensions of the domain of advanced oxidation processes will open up new doors of innovation and intuition in the feasible future. On keeping the future in mind we use sensor to reduce the labour work and save money and time. Advanced oxidation process is not immature yet latent and needs to be targeted towards global environmental pollution and global environmental sustainability. Advanced oxidation processes, novel separation processes or other environmental engineering technologies will surely bridge the gap between innovation, invention and application towards human society.
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